[Bioperl-l] [Gmod-schema] Loading NCBI/GenBank bacteria into CHADO: Chromosome/Plasmid gene name conflicts

Scott Cain scott at scottcain.net
Tue Mar 2 11:11:13 EST 2010


Hi Leighton,

Wow, that is a lot of text; I really appreciate your thoroughness in
describing the problem.  I have a few suggestions to get the ball
rolling.  First, I am working on the 1.1 release of gmod/chado, and it
may fix some of the problems you are describing.  Certainly, ID
collisions between GFF files should not be a problem (I didn't think
they were in the 1.0 release, but that was a long time ago).  Please
try a checkout of the schema trunk in the gmod svn:

  http://gmod.org/wiki/SVN

Another thing you may want to look at is that just last week, a
developer at Texas A&M, Nathan Liles, contributed code to the
bioperl-live trunk for the genbank2gff3.pl script that will do a much
better job of converting bacterial genbank files to GFF3; perhaps that
will help too.  Working with a svn checkout of bioperl-live shouldn't
be too scary either; the pieces you are interested in (that work with
Chado and GBrowse) are quite stable.

Let us know how it goes,
Scott



On Mon, Mar 1, 2010 at 6:32 AM, Leighton Pritchard <lpritc at scri.ac.uk> wrote:
> Hi,
>
> I've tried going back through the mailing list, Googling the answer, and
> reading the documentation and wiki to find a solution for this.  I've either
> missed it, or it's not there yet.  Hopefully there's a simple solution, or
> an option that I'm just not seeing.  I'm sure other people must be using
> CHADO for bacterial genomes, and I would be interested in hearing about best
> practice for using CHADO/GBROWSE with these sequences (I've seen
> http://gmod.org/wiki/Chado_for_prokaryotes - but there's not much in
> there...).
>
> I have a working CHADO(GMOD-1.0)/GBROWSE2/BioPerl 1.6.1 setup on CentOS 5.4,
> and I'm trying to load some bacterial data.  Specifically for this example,
> I'm trying to get the GenBank sequences for E.coli S88: NC_011742 and
> NC_011747 into CHADO.  I've been following instructions from a number of
> locations, including http://gmod.org/wiki/Artemis-Chado_Integration_Tutorial
> and http://gmod.org/wiki/Chado_Tutorial, but there's an issue with these two
> files, in that the NC_011742 (chromosome) and NC_011747 (plasmid) sequences
> contain genes that have the same names (and several genes with the same name
> in the same sequence!), and this appears to be a problem.  Here's what's
> going wrong:
>
> I start off with the two GenBank files:
>
> """
> [lpritc at localhost ~]$ ls -1 *.gbk
> NC_011742.gbk
> NC_011747.gbk
> """
>
> And convert these to .gff3 using the BioPerl script (it doesn't seem to
> matter whether I pass them with the wildcard, or convert separately, though
> passing multiple sequences for conversion might be a good place to check for
> unique IDs):
>
> """
> [lpritc at localhost ~]$ bp_genbank2gff3.pl -s *.gbk
> # Input: NC_011742.gbk
> # working on region:NC_011742, Escherichia coli S88, 19-DEC-2008,
> Escherichia coli S88, complete genome.
> # GFF3 saved to ./NC_011742.gbk.gff
> # Summary:
> # Feature    Count
> # -------    -----
> # mRNA  4696
> # gene  4898
> # region  1
> # pseudogene  151
> # CDS  4696
> # RESIDUES(tr)  1442813
> # RESIDUES  5032268
> # processed_transcript  89
> # rRNA  22
> # pseudogenic_region  151
> # exon  4899
> # tRNA  91
> #
> # Input: NC_011747.gbk
> # working on region:NC_011747, Escherichia coli S88, 18-AUG-2009,
> Escherichia coli S88 plasmid pECOS88, complete sequence.
> # GFF3 saved to ./NC_011747.gbk.gff
> # Summary:
> # Feature    Count
> # -------    -----
> # mRNA  4832
> # gene  5037
> # region  2
> # pseudogene  159
> # CDS  4832
> # RESIDUES(tr)  1477756
> # RESIDUES  5166121
> # processed_transcript  92
> # rRNA  22
> # pseudogenic_region  159
> # exon  5038
> # tRNA  91
> #
> """
>
> I can then use the gmod_bulk_load_gff3.pl script to load either file, but
> only singly.  This appears to work, and the result is visible and seemingly
> correctly navigable in GBROWSE (using NC_011747 as the first sequence here,
> but the order is unimportant):
>
> """
> [lpritc at localhost ~]$ gmod_bulk_load_gff3.pl --organism E.coli --dbxref
> GeneID --noexon --recreate_cache --gfffile NC_011747.gbk.gff
> (Re)creating the uniquename cache in the database...
> Creating table...
> Populating table...
> Creating indexes...Done.
> Preparing data for inserting into the chado database
> (This may take a while ...)
> Dropping cds temp tables...
> Creating cds temp tables...
> NOTICE:  CREATE TABLE will create implicit sequence
> "tmp_cds_handler_cds_row_id_seq" for serial column
> "tmp_cds_handler.cds_row_id"
> NOTICE:  CREATE TABLE / PRIMARY KEY will create implicit index
> "tmp_cds_handler_pkey" for table "tmp_cds_handler"
> NOTICE:  CREATE TABLE will create implicit sequence
> "tmp_cds_handler_relationship_rel_row_id_seq" for serial column
> "tmp_cds_handler_relationship.rel_row_id"
> NOTICE:  CREATE TABLE / PRIMARY KEY will create implicit index
> "tmp_cds_handler_relationship_pkey" for table "tmp_cds_handler_relationship"
> Loading data into feature table ...
> Loading data into featureloc table ...
> Loading data into feature_relationship table ...
> Loading data into featureprop table ...
> Skipping feature_cvterm table since the load file is empty...
> Skipping synonym table since the load file is empty...
> Skipping feature_synonym table since the load file is empty...
> Skipping dbxref table since the load file is empty...
> Loading data into feature_dbxref table ...
> Skipping analysisfeature table since the load file is empty...
> Skipping cvterm table since the load file is empty...
> Skipping db table since the load file is empty...
> Skipping cv table since the load file is empty...
> Skipping analysis table since the load file is empty...
> Skipping organism table since the load file is empty...
> Adding cvtermprop=MapReferenceType for 'region' ...
> Loading sequences (if any) ...
> Optimizing database (this may take a while) ...
>  (feature featureloc feature_relationship featureprop feature_cvterm
> synonym feature_synonym dbxref feature_dbxref analysisfeature cvterm db cv
> analysis organism ) Done.
>
> While this script has made an effort to optimize the database, you
> should probably also run VACUUM FULL ANALYZE on the database as well
> """
>
> """
> chado=> SELECT feature_id, organism_id, name, uniquename FROM feature WHERE
> name='NC_011747';
>  feature_id | organism_id |   name    | uniquename
> ------------+-------------+-----------+------------
>     146917 |          99 | NC_011747 | NC_011747
> """
>
> However, attempting to load in the second sequence throws an error (though
> this might also be a good point to check for ID uniqueness with a database
> check, and appropriate modification to the ID, if necessary - problems could
> arise if we were trying to add genuine duplicates, though...):
>
> """
> [lpritc at localhost ~]$ gmod_bulk_load_gff3.pl --organism E.coli --dbxref
> GeneID --noexon --recreate_cache --gfffile NC_011742.gbk.gff
> (Re)creating the uniquename cache in the database...
> Creating table...
> Populating table...
> Creating indexes...Done.
> Preparing data for inserting into the chado database
> (This may take a while ...)
> Dropping cds temp tables...
> Creating cds temp tables...
> NOTICE:  CREATE TABLE will create implicit sequence
> "tmp_cds_handler_cds_row_id_seq" for serial column
> "tmp_cds_handler.cds_row_id"
> NOTICE:  CREATE TABLE / PRIMARY KEY will create implicit index
> "tmp_cds_handler_pkey" for table "tmp_cds_handler"
> NOTICE:  CREATE TABLE will create implicit sequence
> "tmp_cds_handler_relationship_rel_row_id_seq" for serial column
> "tmp_cds_handler_relationship.rel_row_id"
> NOTICE:  CREATE TABLE / PRIMARY KEY will create implicit index
> "tmp_cds_handler_relationship_pkey" for table "tmp_cds_handler_relationship"
>
> no parent yacC;
> you probably need to rerun the loader with the --recreate_cache option
>
> Issuing rollback() due to DESTROY without explicit disconnect() of
> DBD::Pg::db handle dbname=chado;port=5432;host=localhost.
> """
>
> This, of course, prevents the upload of the sequence and its annotations, as
> a whole.
>
> The script recommends that the --recreate_cache option should be used, but I
> am already using it.  If the same process is run, reversing the order of the
> input files, the same error is reported, but for the gene with name 'int'.
> Both sequences contain genes with the names 'int' and 'yacC' (NC_011742
> appears to contain four genes with the name 'int'):
>
> """
> [lpritc at localhost ~]$ grep 'ID=yacC;' *.gbk.gff
> NC_011742.gbk.gff:NC_011742    GenBank    gene    142755    143273    .    -
> .    ID=yacC;Dbxref=GeneID:7130628;gene=yacC;locus_tag=ECS88_0131
> NC_011747.gbk.gff:NC_011747    GenBank    gene    85083    85931    .    +
> .    ID=yacC;Dbxref=GeneID:7119486;gene=yacC;locus_tag=pECS88_0103
>
> [lpritc at localhost ~]$ grep 'ID=int;' *.gbk.gff
> NC_011742.gbk.gff:NC_011742    GenBank    gene    1182443    1183585    .
> -    .    ID=int;Dbxref=GeneID:7131611;gene=int;locus_tag=ECS88_1152
> NC_011742.gbk.gff:NC_011742    GenBank    pseudogene    1998684    1999646
> .    +    .
> ID=int;Dbxref=GeneID:7128964;gene=int;locus_tag=ECS88_2031;pseudo=_no_value
> NC_011742.gbk.gff:NC_011742    GenBank    gene    2829972    2830991    .
> +    .    ID=int;Dbxref=GeneID:7131911;gene=int;locus_tag=ECS88_2851
> NC_011742.gbk.gff:NC_011742    GenBank    gene    3220074    3221336    .
> +    .    ID=int;Dbxref=GeneID:7129893;gene=int;locus_tag=ECS88_3250
> NC_011747.gbk.gff:NC_011747    GenBank    gene    132    872    .    +    .
> ID=int;Dbxref=GeneID:7119360;gene=int;locus_tag=pECS88_0001
> """
>
> Commenting out either of these genes, and their child features, defers the
> error to another gene that has the same name in both sequences in each case.
> It seems that the problem might derive from attempting to uniquely associate
> each gene uniquely with its 'gene' tag in the GenBank file and, as there are
> several points in the process where it would be sensible to check for name
> collisions, so that the feature:uniquename column can be modified to reflect
> this, I looked for command-line options to each script, but didn't see one
> that could help.  Examining the manual for gmod_bulk_load_gff3.pl suggests
> that this might be the problem (though I might be misunderstanding it):
>
> """
>       Column 9 (group)
>           Here is where the magic happens.
>
>           Assigning feature.name, feature.uniquename
>               The values of feature.name and feature.uniquename are
> assigned according to these simple rules:
>
>               If there is an ID tag, that is used as feature.uniquename
>                   otherwise, it is assigned a uniquename that is equal to
> ¹auto¹ concatenated with the feature_id.
>
>                   (Note that this is a potential problem as there is no
> check to make sure that it is appropriately unique.)
>
>               If there is a Name tag, it¹s value is set to feature.name;
>                   otherwise it is null.
>
>                   Note that these rules are much more simple than that
> those that Bio::DB::GFF uses, and may need to be revisited.
> """
>
> I suspect that, as the bp_genbank2gff3.pl script converts gene names (which
> are not guaranteed to be unique) to ID tags, the problem recognised in the
> manual is cropping up at this point.  Luckily, the GenBank files come with
> locus_tag tags, which should be unique for each gene (see
> http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Genbank/genomesubmit.html#locus_tag).  For
> bacteria, at least, using the locus_tag values might be a more robust option
> for the bp_genbank2gff3.pl; this already appears to have been recognised in
> the script comments:
>
> """
>            #?? should gene_name from
> /locus_tag,/gene,/product,/transposon=xxx
>            # be converted to or added as  Name=xxx (if not ID= or as well)
>            ## problematic: convert_to_name ($feature); # drops
> /locus_tag,/gene, tags
> """
>
> I can get round the upload problem somewhat suckily by changing the priority
> given to 'locus_tag' and 'gene' tags for generating the .gff ID tag in the
> bp_genbank2gff3.pl script:
>
> """
> [lpritc at localhost ~]$ diff bp_genbank2gff3.pl /usr/bin/bp_genbank2gff3.pl
> 976,977c976,977
> <     if ($g->has_tag('locus_tag')) {
> <         ($gene_id) = $g->get_tag_values('locus_tag');
> ---
>>     if ($g->has_tag('gene')) {
>>         ($gene_id) = $g->get_tag_values('gene');
> 979,980c979,980
> <     elsif ($g->has_tag('gene')) {
> <         ($gene_id) = $g->get_tag_values('gene');
> ---
>>     elsif ($g->has_tag('locus_tag')) {
>>         ($gene_id) = $g->get_tag_values('locus_tag');
> """
>
> But this isn't a complete solution, as GBROWSE searches by gene name don't
> work after making this change, and presumably some further configuration or
> hacking about is required to sort that out (advice welcome).
>
> So, what are other people doing to overcome this issue (if you've seen it),
> and would a change to the bp_genbank2gff.pl script along the lines I mention
> be useful to others?
>
> Cheers,
>
> L.
>
>
> --
> Dr Leighton Pritchard MRSC
> D131, Plant Pathology Programme, SCRI
> Errol Road, Invergowrie, Perth and Kinross, Scotland, DD2 5DA
> e:lpritc at scri.ac.uk       w:http://www.scri.ac.uk/staff/leightonpritchard
> gpg/pgp: 0xFEFC205C       tel:+44(0)1382 562731 x2405
>
>
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-- 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Scott Cain, Ph. D.                                   scott at scottcain dot net
GMOD Coordinator (http://gmod.org/)                     216-392-3087
Ontario Institute for Cancer Research



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